విక్షనరీ నుండి

A glossary of terms used in the body of this dictionary. see also Wiktionary:Glossary – which contains terms used elsewhere in the Wiktionary community.

Table of Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


"Ante" (Latin for "before"). Hence, a quotation from "a. 1924" is a quotation from no later than 1923.
A shortened form of a word, such as an initialism, acronym, or many terms ending in a period.
A case that originally indicated separation but often acquired many other uses in some languages. It is used alone or with certain prepositions. For example, if English had a fully productive case system, then the city or from the city in "came from the city" and care or with care in "handle with care" would likely be in the ablative.
acc., accusative
A case that is usually used as the direct object of a verb. For example, if English had a fully productive case system, then ball in "The man threw the ball" would most likely be in the accusative.
An abbreviation that is pronounced as the “word” it would spell, such as NATO.
active voice
the voice verb form in which the subject is the person or thing doing the action, cf passive voice. (see also మూస:projectlink)   eg: The boy kicked the ball.
Anno Domini. Year-numbering system equivalent to CE.
A word like big or childish that usually serves to modify a noun.
A word like very, wickedly or often that usually serves to modify an adjective, verb, or other adverb.
agent noun
A noun that denotes an agent who does the action denoted by the verb from which the noun is derived, such as "cutter" derived from "to cut".
"American Heritage Dictionary". For historical reasons, this abbreviation is sometimes used here to identify a respelled pronunciation that is given in enPR form.
Either transitive or intransitive. For instance, eat and read optionally take a direct object: "I eat daily", "She likes to read" (both intransitive), "Read this book", "I do not eat meat" (both transitive). Note: Although ergative verbs are ambitransitive, a single definition could only refer to an unergative verb.
A word form used in Italian and other languages in which the word is lacking the final sound or syllable.
No longer in general use, but still found in some contemporary texts (such as Bible translations) and generally understood (but rarely used) by educated people. For example, thee and thou are archaic pronouns, having been completely superseded by you. Archaic is a stronger term than dated, but not as strong as obsolete.
  • A member of a small group of determiners that are central to a language. In English, the articles are the (the definite article), a (the indefinite article), and an (a special form of a), as well as (by some theories) a "null article" that is frequently implied but never expressed; other languages frequently have more articles (such as French, which by one reckoning has ten) or fewer (such as Hebrew, which only has one, or Latin, which has none at all, not counting the null article).
  • A dictionary entry (that is, article and entry are mostly interchangeable in this sense).
A property of a verb form indicating the nature of an action as perfective (complete) or imperfective (incomplete or continuing).
aspirated h
In French, an initial <h> that is treated as a consonant; that is to say, liaison and elision are not permitted at the beginning of a word with an aspirated h.
Relating to a verb that accompanies the main verb in a clause in order to make distinctions in tense, mood, voice or aspect.
avoidance term
A word standardly used to replace a taboo word.


A term formed by removing an apparent or real prefix or suffix from an older term; for example, the noun pea arose because the final /z/ sound in pease sounded like a plural suffix. Similarly, the verb edit is a back-formation from the earlier noun editor. Not to be confused with clipping, which just shortens a word without changing meaning or part of speech.
Before Christ. Year-numbering system equivalent to BCE.
Before the Common Era. Year-numbering system equivalent to BC. To automatically switch most dates to use the "BC"/"AD" style, visit WT:Per-browser preferences.
A word or name that starts with the start of one word and ends with the end of another, such as smog (from smoke and fog) or Wiktionary (from wiki and dictionary). Many blends are portmanteaus.
The removal, from a text, of words or phrases that are considered offensive or vulgar.


c., ca.
"Circa" ("about"). Hence, a quotation from "c. 1924" or "ca. 1924" is a quotation from approximately 1924.
"Of common gender". Some languages have a distinct common gender that combines masculine and feminine but is distinguished from neuter. In others languages, a "noun of common gender" is epicene; that is, it is a pair of nouns, one masculine and one feminine, that are identical in form, and that have the same sense except that one refers to men and the other to women.
A borrowing by word-for-word translation: a loan translation.
One of the forms of a noun, used to indicate its function in the phrase or sentence. Example include: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative.
Abbreviation for category.
Without the period, the ISO 639-3 code for the Catalan language.
A collection of entries, used to categorize or group entries of words that are similar in syntax (for example, English plural nouns) or in sense (for example, English words pertaining to sports); see Wiktionary:Categorization.
Common Era. Year-numbering system equivalent to AD. To automatically switch most dates to use the "BC"/"AD" style, visit WT:Per-browser preferences.
"Confer"; "see"; "compare" – often used to indicate a word with similar, or opposite meaning.
Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese.
A shortening of a word, without changing meaning or part of speech. Not to be confused with back-formation, which changes meaning.
A word that attaches to a phrase and cannot be used on its own, such as English -'s. Many languages have clitic pronouns, which may be contrasted with emphatic or strong pronouns; for example, English 'em is a clitic version of them, and always attaches to the preceding word (usually the verb).
Used primarily in casual conversation rather than in more formal written works, speeches, and discourse. Compare similar tag informal.
Note: It is a common misconception that colloquial somehow denotes "location" or a word being "regional". This is not the case; the word root for colloquial is related to locution, not location.
(of an adjective or adverb) able to be compared, having comparative and superlative forms that end in -er and -est (adjectives only), or in conjunction with the words more or most, or in some cases further or furthest. Examples: big, bigger, and biggest; talented, more talented, and most talented; upstairs, further upstairs, and furthest upstairs. Some adjectives are truly uncomparable, such as daily, additional, and else. Many other adjectives, such as unique, existential, and bearable are generally considered uncomparable, but controversially so, where examples can be readily cited of something being "more bearable" or "most perfect".
An inflection, or different form, of a comparable adjective showing a relative quality, usually denoting "to a greater extent" but not "to the ultimate extent" (see also superlative and degrees of comparison). In English, the comparative form is usually formed by appending -er, or using the word more. For example, the comparative of hard is "harder"; of difficult, "more difficult".
A word or name that combines two or more words without altering them, such as dishcloth (from dish and cloth) or keyboard (from key and board). Compound terms are indicated in etymologies using {{compound}}; see also WT:ETY#Compound.
A shortened word or phrase, sometimes with the missing letter(s) represented by an apostrophe (eg do notdon't).
countable, countable noun, count noun
Describes a noun which can be freely used with the indefinite article (a or an in English) and with numbers, and which therefore has a plural form. Antonym: uncountable, or mass noun.


"Dative". A case that is usually used as the indirect object of a verb. For example, if English had a fully productive case system, then him in "She gave him the ball" would most likely be in the dative.
Formerly in common use, and still in occasional use, but now unfashionable; for example, wireless in the sense of "broadcast radio tuner", groovy, and gay in the sense of "bright" or "happy" could all be considered dated. Dated is not so strong as archaic or obsolete; see Wiktionary:Obsolete and archaic terms.
defective verb
refers to forms of words that present something as known, identified, or immediately identifiable; in English, this is the basic meaning of the article the; in some languages, this is a nominal or adjectival inflection.
degrees of comparison
Inflections of adjectives and adverbs which allow comparisons. English has three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative and superlative. Some other languages have other degrees, eg: comparative superlative, relative superlative, elative.
(In Greek and in the Gaelic languages) A verb form which is not used independently but preceded by a particle to form the negative or a tense form.
derived terms
A post-POS heading listing terms in the same language that are morphological derivatives.
A noun modifier that expresses the in-context reference or quantity of a noun or noun phrase. Determiners are often considered adjectives, but in fact are not quite the same; for example, in English, big is an adjective, so “the big car” is grammatical while *“He saw big car” is not, but some is a determiner, so *“the some car” is not grammatical while “He saw some car” is. In English, adjectives can sometimes stand alone without a noun, while determiners nearly always can (contrast *“He saw big” with “He saw some”), such that they are sometimes considered pronouns as well as adjectives.
  1. Of or relating to a dialect.
  2. Not linguistically standard.
A word form expressing smallness, youth, unimportance, or endearment.
(of a verb) taking two objects, such as give in “Give me the ball” (where me is an indirect object and the ball is a direct object). Compare intransitive and transitive.


"Editor". This abbreviation is often used in attributing quotations; the editor of a compilation is generally the individual in charge of selecting what works to include.
In Semitic languages, a stage of gradation in Arabic that can be used both for a superlative and comparative (see also degrees of comparison).
Taking particular stress. English's reflexive pronouns double as emphatic ones, as in "I myself have not seen it" (where "myself" emphasizes the role of the speaker); other languages often have emphatic pronouns that they distinguish from weak or clitic pronouns.
Wiktionary's English Phonemic Representation system. Details in the English pronunciation key.
Optionally taking a direct object that is semantically equivalent to the subject in the intransitive construction. For example, the same thing happens to the window in "The window broke" (subject) as in "I broke the window" (direct object), so break is an ergative verb.
A term that is less vulgar or less offensive than the one it replaces.
eye dialect
A nonstandard spelling used to show a speaker's pronunciation, especially when it is a pronunciation the writer considers dialectal or nonstandard.


"Feminine"; said of a word belonging to the feminine gender, which is usually contrasted with the masculine gender, and also often with a neuter gender.
"Feminine plural"; of feminine gender and plural number.
Describes a context where those conversing, through speech or written word, are well acquainted with one another and in casual situations often use more informal or colloquial terms to communicate.
Not literal. Of words in metaphorical usage, such as 'pig' of a greedy person, or metonymic, as 'crown' to mean the monarchy.
grc:α/Category:grc:β/Category:grc:γ/… form(s)
Denoting forms of a word that are grouped together because of an important shared characteristic which is not shared by forms in the other group(s). Spellings may be grouped by the different pronunciations they represent (as for sny2), by inflexional differences (as for finocchio), or for a variety of etymological (e.g. thrombendarteriectomy) or other reasons.
Describes a context where word choice and syntax are primarily limited to those terms and constructions that are accepted by academia or official institutions as most appropriate and correct. Informal terms, frequently those that originate through casual speech (colloquial), are often inappropriate in formal contexts. Examples with varying degrees of formality include: official or legal documents, formal essays, job interviews, etc.


A way of classifying nouns in some languages. In such languages, each noun has a specific gender (often determined by its meaning and/or form), and other words (especially adjectives and pronouns) will often change form to agree with the noun's gender.
Any of various non-finite verb forms in various languages. In English, a "gerund" is a verb in its -ing form when used in a way that resembles the use of a noun.


Used to refer to past objects and concepts. Such terms referring to things that no longer exist or are no longer in use, such as Czechoslovakia or stomacher, or concepts that are no longer current, such as phlogiston.
Incorrect because of the misapplication of a standard rule; for example, octopi used as the plural form of octopus is hypercorrect because -us-i is the rule for forming plurals of originally-masculine nouns of the Latin second declension, whereas octopus actually derives from Ancient Greek, and to be consistent with its etymology has the plural form octopodes.
Incorrectly applying foreign reading rules, such as in pronouncing the <j> in Taj Mahal as [ʒ] rather than [dʒ], or dropping the [t] in claret.
The splitting of a word across a line boundary, with a hyphen at the end of the first part. For example, the hyphenation of hyphenation is given as "hy‧phen‧ation" meaning that it is split across a line break as hy-phenation or as hyphen-ation.


A phrase whose meaning is unapparent or unobvious from the individual words that make it up, such as beat around the bush ‎(avoid uncomfortable topic), come a cropper ‎(suffer misfortune), or pay through the nose ‎(pay an unusually large amount). Idioms are often, but not always set phrases, and are usually distinct from proverbs. See also Appendix:Glossary of idioms.
Pertaining or conforming to the mode of expression characteristic of a language. Idioms, collocations, and modal verbs are examples of idiomatic language.
The imperfective past tense of a verb, indicating that the action described happened repeatedly, habitually or continuously.
Progressive. The aspect of a verb, indicating that the action described is, was or will be continuing, uncompleted or repeated. A combination of 'be' + the present participle ('-ing' form) of the verb. So one can have present imperfect(ive) (or progressive, or continuous) e.g., "is painting" or past imperfect(ive) – e.g., "was painting". (Contrast perfective.)
imperfective past
A verb form of imperfective aspect and past tense, which is used to describe an action or event which was happening continuously or repeatedly in the past, as in “Tom was painting the fence” or “Tom used to paint the fence.”
impersonal verb
A verb that cannot take a subject, or takes a third-person subject pronoun (e.g. it) without an antecedent. The term weather verb is also sometimes used in some texts, since such verbs of weather (e.g. rain) are impersonal in many languages.
Verbs marked as inanimate are usually applied only to objects or concepts, and rarely used in the first or second persons.
refers to forms of words that present something as not yet identified or not immediately identifiable; in English, this is the basic meaning of the article a; in some languages, this is a nominal or adjectival inflection.
Denotes spoken or written words that are used primarily in a familiar, or casual, context, where a clear, formal equivalent often exists that is employed in its place in formal contexts. Compare similar tag colloquial.
The change in form of a word to represent various grammatical categories, such as tense (e.g. past tense, present tense, future tense) or number (e.g. singular, plural). For example, the verb run may be inflected to produce runs, ran, and running. In highly inflected languages, such as Latin, there will be many more forms. Two major types of inflection are conjugation (inflection of verbs) and declension (inflection of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns).
An abbreviation that is formed from the initial letters of a sequence of words. Initialisms that are pronounced as words, such as UNICEF, are usually called acronyms, so the term initialism is generally only used for those that are pronounced letter by letter, such as USA.
  • Of a verb: not taking a direct object; not transitive. For example, the verb listen does not usually take a direct object; one cannot say *"I listened the ball".
  • Of an adposition (such as a preposition), or of an adverb: not having a nominal complement. For example, using the following prepositions or adverbs without a complement (here in parentheses): down (the stairs), under (the bridge), inside (the building), aboard (the ship), underneath (the table), here, there, abroad, downtown, afterwards, …
Lacking distinct inflected forms. For example, the English noun sheep is invariable because its plural is also sheep.
The International Phonetic Alphabet; a standardized system for transcribing the sounds in any spoken language.
Not following the usual rules of inflection; for example, the plural of English man is men, which is irregular; the regularly formed plural would have been *mans.


(plural lemmata)
The headword or citation form of an inflected word, especially the form found in a bilingual dictionary. This is usually, for verbs: the infinitive or the present tense, first person singular; and for nouns: the nominitive singular. (In linguistics, the word is sometimes used in a sense that includes this definition plus all the inflections cf lexeme).
Exactly as stated; read or understood without additional interpretation; not figurative or metaphorical.
(from మూస:etym λιτότης) better known as an understatement in English, is a rhetorical figure that consists of saying less to mean more. E.g.: he is not very clever instead of he is a stupid idiot ; she's not very pretty instead of she's ugly, etc. The litotes is not to be confused, as it is quite often, with the euphemism.


of masculine gender
mass noun
see uncountable noun, below.
masculine plural
A term that denotes a part of the whole that is denoted by another term. The word "arm" is a meronym of the word "body".
middle voice
The voice verb form in which the subject of a verb performs some action upon itself, it falls somewhere between the active and passive voices. Found in a few languages (eg Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, Icelandic). (see మూస:projectlink)
mute h
In French, an initial <h> that is treated like a vowel; that is to say, liaison and elision are permitted at the beginning of words that have a mute h.


Of neuter gender.
negative polarity item
A term or construction that is generally found only in questions, negative sentences, and certain other “negative polarity” contexts; for example, anyone is a negative polarity item, as one can say "I did not see anyone" and "Did you see anyone?", but not *"I saw anyone."
A newly coined term or meaning. See Wiktionary:Neologisms.
A case that is usually used as the subject of a verb. For example, if English had a fully productive case system, then (the) man in "The man threw the ball" would most likely be in the nominative case.
Not conforming to the language as accepted by the majority of its speakers.
an object such as a ball, a chair or an animal, or a concept such as happiness, joy or loveliness. See also countable, uncountable and plural.


oblique case
Especially in Hindi and Old French, refers to any case which is neither a nominative or a vocative.
obs, obsolete
No longer in use, and no longer likely to be understood. Obsolete is a stronger term than archaic, and a much stronger term than dated.
Oxford English Dictionary. Also SOED (Shorter), OED1 (1st edition), OED2 (2nd edition), NOED (New).

... see dated

in Greek, a word with the stress upon its final syllable (eg εθνικός ‎(ethnikós)). Compare with paroxytone and proparoxytone.


post or after, often used in quotations. Hence, a quotation from "p. 1924" is a quotation from no earlier than 1924.
in Greek, a word with the stress upon the penultimate (second to last) syllable (e.g., εθνολόγος ‎(ethnológos)). Compare with oxytone and proparoxytone.
passive voice
the voice verb form in which the subject is not the person or thing doing the action, and is usually having the action done on them, cf active voice. (see also మూస:projectlink)   eg: the ball was kicked (by the boy).
The aspect of a verb, indicating that the action described is completed. Consists of the verb 'have' + the past participle e.g., 'Tom has painted the fence' 'Tom has taken medicine'. Depending on the tense of 'have' one can have present perfect(ive), which are represented in the previous examples, or past perfective: 'Tom had painted the fence', 'Tom had taken medicine'. 'To have painted' is a perfective infinitive (cf. Imperfective.)
perfective past
Simple past, a verb form of perfective aspect and past tense, which is used to describe an action or event which is regarded as having been completed in the past, in relation to a time already in the past. E.g., Tom had painted the fence before I got there.
Using more words, eg more fair is a periphrastic form of fairer.
plurale tantum
A noun (or a sense of a noun) that is inherently plural and is not used (or is not used in the same sense) in the singular, such as pants in the senses of "trousers" and "underpants", or wheels in the sense of "car". However, in practice, most pluralia tantum are found in the singular in rare cases. (See Category:English pluralia tantum.)
A blend that combines meanings.
The 'normal' form of the degrees of comparison of an adjective or adverb. Thus big is the positive form of the trio big, bigger, biggest.
Placed after the word modified.
Used to form new words and phrases. For example, when a new verb appears in Modern English, the productive suffix -ed is used to form its past participle; by contrast, the suffix -en appears in many existing past participles, but is not productive, in that it is not (usually) used to form new ones.
A verb in the form Tom is painting is progressive; imperfective or continuous.
in Greek, a word with the stress upon the antepenultimate (third to last) syllable (e.g., εθνικότητα). Compare with oxytone and paroxytone.
proper noun
A kind of noun that usually refers to a specific, unique thing, such as Earth and the Alps, though one language's proper noun may translate to another language using a common (not proper) noun. In English, proper nouns are usually capitalized, as are common nouns and adjectives derived from proper nouns. The same word may have both common-noun and proper-noun senses (such as German, which is both a proper noun denoting a certain language, and a common noun denoting a person from Germany), and most proper nouns can sometimes be used as common nouns (e.g., John is a proper noun that is a first name, but can be used a common noun with plural Johns meaning “people named John”).
Some educators or other authorities recommend against the listed usage.


related terms
Words in the same language that have strong etymological connections but are not derived terms.
A string of words that are designed to impress or confuse, rather than communicate
rhetorical question
A question to which the speaker does not expect an answer


SAMPA, a set of systems for representing the phonemes of various languages in plain ASCII text.
  • Not to be confused with X–SAMPA, the system for representing the full IPA in plain ASCII text.
set phrase
Set phrase, a common expression whose wording is not subject to variation, or alternately, whose words cannot be replaced by synonymous words without compromising the meaning. Set phrases may include idioms, proverbs, and colloquialisms.
A Latin adverb meaning "thus, so". It is traditionally placed inside square brackets and used in quotations to indicate that the preceding is not a copying error, but is in fact a verbatim reflection of the source. (For example, if a source contains a typographical error, someone quoting the source might add [sic] to make clear that the error was in the original source.)
A figure of speech in which one thing is compared to another, in the case of English generally using like or as.
Denotes language that is unique to a particular profession or subject, i.e. jargon. Also refers to the specialized language of a social group, sometimes used to make what is said unintelligible to those who are not members of the group, i.e. cant. Such language is usually outside of conventional usage, and is mostly inappropriate in formal contexts.
The part of an inflected to which the ending is added. e.g. Example from Latin mens (stem) ae (ending) mensae ("tables").
strong pronoun
(Greek) An emphatic pronoun.
strong verb
(in a Germanic language) a verb undergoing a stem change in some conjugations, usually a vowel change. E.g.: drink, drank, drunk
An inflection, or different form, of a comparable adjective showing a relative quality, denoting "to the ultimate extent" (see also comparative and degrees of comparison). In English, the superlative form is often formed by appending -est, or using the word most. For example, the superlative of big is "biggest"; of confident, "most confident".


tr., tran.
translator or translated, often used in quotations.
a verb which requires one or more objects (eg I kick the ball), cf. intransitive.
the conversion of text in one script into an equivalent in another script. This may include the conversion of diacritical marks into alternate forms without diacritical marks (e.g. Mörder → Moerder).


UK English, i.e. The English of the United Kingdom.
uncomparable, not comparable
(of adjectives) unable to be compared, or lacking a comparative and superlative function. See comparable. Examples of adjectives that are not comparable: annual, first, extra, satin, six-figure.
uncountable, uncountable noun, mass noun
A noun that cannot be used freely with numbers or the indefinite article, and which therefore takes no plural form. For example, the English noun information is a mass noun, at least in its principal senses. For those senses, we cannot say that we have *one information, nor that we have *many information (or *many informations). Many languages do not distinguish between countable and uncountable nouns. Antonym: countable, or count noun.


a verb characteristic (expressed in some languages by inflection) indicating its relationship with the subject. The usual voices are: active, passive and middle. see also మూస:projectlink
Language considered distasteful or obscene.


weak pronoun
a pronoun of one syllable which is dependent on another word and cannot be used on its own; sometimes called clitic. Compare with emphatic or strong.
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Extended SAMPA, a system for representing the full IPA in plain text.
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